On January 1, 1949, a United Nations-brokered ceasefire was reached between India and Pakistan, ending the 1947 Indo-Pakistani War (also known as the 1947 Kashmir War). In October 1947, fighting broke out between the two newly independent countries of Kashmir, with India intervening on behalf of the princely ruler of Kashmir, who had joined India, and Pakistan supporting the rebels. Fighting has been limited to Kashmir, but fearing it could develop into a global international war, India referred the case to the UN Security Council, in accordance with Article 35 of the UN Charter, which deals with situations “that could jeopardize the maintenance of international peace.” The Security Council established the United Nations Special Commission for India and Pakistan, which mediated for an entire year as the fighting continued. Following several United Nations resolutions that outlined a procedure for settling the dispute by referendum, a ceasefire agreement was reached between the countries towards the end of December 1948 and entered into force last year. The Security Council has set up the UN Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) to monitor the ceasefire line. [17] During Ramadan 2018, India declared a ceasefire in the Kashmir Valley. [18] Foreign mercenaries will leave within three months “from all Libyan areas land, air and sea,” she added, referring to the thousands of Syrian fighters deployed by Turkey and Russia on the other side of the war. The agreement also provided for the creation of a joint military force and a mechanism to monitor violations, Williams said, and will be sent to the UN Security Council. Ceasefires can be between state actors if they even reach the stage of a global ceasefire[5] or if they involve non-state actors and are “local”.

[6] You can be formal (usually in writing) or informal; their conditions may be public or secret. Ceasefires may be mediated or otherwise as part of a peace process or may be imposed by United Nations Security Council resolutions relating to Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations. [1] How the ceasefire is being enforced – in the face of the patchwork of Libyan militias – is unclear, but Williams said armed groups and military units agreed to return “to their camps” and that the agreement would go into effect immediately. The agreement culminated in a dialogue initiated in February 2020 by the United Nations by five military officers loyal to the GNA and five military officers linked to Haftar (known as the 5+5 joint military Commission) in February 2020. This negotiation is one of three (the others are political and economic) convened by the United Nations since the Berlin conference of January 2020, which aimed to end Haftar`s campaign for the Tripoli intervention. [fn] After months of lengthy CONSULTATIONS by the United Nations with foreign actors in the Libyan conflict, Germany convened the Berlin Conference on Libya on 19 January 2020. In conclusion, the United States, the EU, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, Italy, Germany, Turkey, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Algeria and Congo-Brazzaville as well as the United Nations, the Arab League and the African Union signed a 55-point declaration, which was subsequently endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 2510 (12 February 2020) and which strongly supports their countries in a tripartite mediation process. of the United Nations hrieb. Military Rail tasked a 5+5 military commission, composed of five military representatives from each side of the conflict, to reach an agreement on ceasefire terms.

Crisis Group Statement, “Libya: Turning the Berlin Conference`s Words into Action,” January 22, 2020.Hide the footnote For months, this track has yielded no results, even after Haftar`s troops withdrew from the Tripoli environment in June. Encouraged by Haftar`s withdrawal and reinforced by Turkey`s direct military support, pro-GNA forces launched an attack on the Haftar-controlled Libyan center in hopes of seizing oil facilities that Haftar had blocked since January. [fn] Statement by the crisis group, “Avoiding Egyptian military intervention in Libya,” July 27, 2020. . . .